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Cast of a Zulu boy
Berlin, German Empire, 1891
Castan’s Panopticon
Ard-Mhúsaem na hÉireann, Dublin, Ireland

Within Europe itself, certain peoples were regarded as being racially ‘less evolved’ than others. According to such racist concepts, these societies were usually described as being on the geographical and social margins of Europe and were often seen as the living ancestors of 19th‑century Europe’s more highly developed races.