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World-map in Ptolemy’s geography
Italy, ca. 1454
Ioannis Rhosos
Illustrated manuscript
Biblioteca Nazionale Marciana, Venice, Italy

Works by ancient geographers such as Claudius Ptolemy (c.90-c.170 CE, or Common Era) give us glimpses into their known world. Only parts of Europe, Asia and North Africa are represented. Ptolemy used a system of coordinates to locate specific places. His maps remained the basis for European cartography beyond the 15th century.